1. Geographical setting
The town of Bălan is situated in the North-Eastern part of Harghita County which is in the Central part of the Oriental Carpathians, at the foot of the Hăşmaşul Mare Mountains.
Its northern altitude is 43.30 degrees and the eastern longitude is 25.44 degrees.
Bălan has access to no. 12 national road (between Miercurea-Ciuc and Gheorgheni) and next to it the village Sândominic is situated. The distance to Miercurea-Ciuc is of 42 km and to Gheorgheni is of 19 km ( the road to Gheorgheni is inaccessible to the public traffic but it offers an exceptional tourist cal route the trips on route on this route can be made with sleighs pulled by dogs).
Bălan is placed along the Olt River on approximately 3 km, relief consists of small lake surrounded by spectacular mountains an hills which charm with their unique beauty.
The climate in temperate-continental with a very favourable microclimate.[The therapeutically effect of the forests can be felt; the air is pure, resin like, rich in feticide].
The forests have a therapeutically effect because of the air which is pure, resin like, rich in phytoncides. This air keep you fit and your trip here will give relation and peace.
The average temperature during year verves around 7Ceisius degrees and during winter it is between-10 and -8 Celsius degrees: Sunny hours per year are around 1300-1400 hours and the rainy ones are of on average 710-733 mm.
Because of the mountains and forests which surround the region the winds in this region have small value making Bălan town a peaceful and quiet region from this point of view.
3. Relief, geological structure
"The mountain hides even now
Its forehead between the clouds;
And when the lightening touches the rocks,
An eagle worried for it youngsters
And from the rocks responds
If a lightening touches the rocks
From the rocks will respond
An eagle worried for its youngsters."
The geological substructure consists of sedimentary rocks-crystals, andesine, calcareous, stones and other rocks resistant to erosion. On these rocks thrown acid soil were formed. These soils have a weak fertility and are inappropriate for agriculture and appropriate for spruce fir forests which grow on vast surfaces.
The relief is typical for mountains with valleys, abrupt slopes and clip. The height verves from 850 meters-the town’s level, up to 1792 meters the highest point in Haşmaşul Mare.
4. Hydrographical Structure
The hydrographical structure is represented by the Olt River and by its tributaries. The hydrological conditions/ septum/order per year/yearly/for a year are/is relatively constant (have a relative constant value) so that until the present day there have not been recorded torrential high floods or other natural calamities. In certain places there are springs of sparkling mineral water.
The current vegetation well the soil sot that usually there are not ravines, erosions, soil glides marshes and other processes of natural degradations of soil.
5. The Flora and Fauna
In the surroundings of Bălan town the forest still occupy vast territories (surfaces).The existent forests conation mainly of spruce first (Picea excels). In a smaller number fir Aries larch trees (Larix decidna) and sycamore maple trees (Ace pseudoplatonis). Rarely encountered species are: the while alder (Alnup), the green older, willow trees (Solix traindra), and read osier willow trees (Salix fraglis), while osier willow trees and rowan trees (Sorbus/ Pinus acuparia).
Also plants of an extraordinary beauty can be encountered as the following, wild peony (Poenia officinalis), spurge olive (Daphne mezereum).All of then are rare species and they are protected by low. A great deal of the existent flora is used in pharmaceutics for medical prepress, for example: the angelica (Archangelica officinalis).
Also in these forests they are many species of edible mushrooms and berries. Examples of mushrooms are: edible boletus (Boletus edulis), chanterelle, carob beans, morels (Morchella), and different species of Rustle.
Fruit bearing basher also be encountered, for example: raspberry blusher ( Rubus idaeus), bilberry basher (Fragaria vesca).
The mountains, the forest and the rivers offer a provision biotope to a rich variety of wild animals as: the Carpathian bear, the Carpathian lynx, and the Carpathian fox, the black mangoes, Capercailzie, owl (Bubo Bubo), dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius), Black swift (Apus apus), rock spangle and the trout (Solmo trulta).